A Symbiotic View of Life

We Have Never Been Individuals

December 2012

For animals, as well as plants, there have never been individuals. This new paradigm for biology asks new questions and seeks new relationships among the different living entities on Earth. We are all lichens.

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🡢 https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/668166

A Symbiotic View of Life

Scott Gilbert


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